Sunday, March 4, 2018

Thoughts on Lincoln’s Second Inaugural and Gettysburg Address

I still cannot decide if I prefer the Gettysburg address or the Second Inaugural as Lincoln’s superior work, though I have thought and written about it often before. I really like the Second Inaugural, published below, and the various styles of writing and phrasing Lincoln used in it, but the Gettysburg Address has similar qualities and has reached a legendary status even (or especially?) among non-Civil War students. Should that fame affect how I view that speech? I just do not know. Fame does not change the quality of the writing or Lincoln’s ability to make his points so succinctly, but fame does attract more people to learn about Lincoln, Gettysburg, the Civil War and its meaning. I think it is important for people to understand at least some basic facts about the war and the Gettysburg Address may encourage some students to do so. The Second Inaugural is wonderful, but lacks the popular appeal of the other address and likely does not lead as many people to become interested in the Civil War. Does popularity affect which one is better or should I only focus on the actual speeches, their words and meanings? That is another good question I am trying to answer for myself.

Perhaps this whole issue is not utterly important, but it is something I like to ponder, especially on days like today, the anniversary of the Second Inaugural. Just the process of re-reading each speech and thinking about their meaning may be good for me. I’m sure it is something I shall continue to do. Maybe it is the journey of contemplating this question that is more important than the destination/answer after all. Perhaps, though, I need to explore this some more. Another post on this may be coming soon if I can get my thoughts organized as I want.

Fellow-countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office, there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement, somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued, seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself; and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.
On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it—all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.
One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the Southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was, somehow, the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it.
Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with, or even before, the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces; but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered—that of neither has been answered fully.
The Almighty has his own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses! for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through his appointed time, he now wills to remove, and that he gives to both North and South this terrible war, as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to him? Fondly do we hope—fervently do we pray—that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said, "The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.” 
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations.

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